Domy ze slámy

Možnosti moderního ekologického bydlení
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simir
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Re: Domy ze slámy

#11 Příspěvek od simir » 31 črc 2008 14:43

jak sem to já pochopil, tak razítko na čistě slaměnou stavbu nedostaneš. Ale jak již bylo zmíněno za nosnou můžeš prohlásit hliněnou stěnu, na který po postavení není vidět tloušťka :twisted: nebo dřevěnou konstrukci. Pak se na to dá i razítko obstarat.


Nepřehlédněte! vývoj příměstského vozítka pro jednu osobu

Před napsáním odpovědi si prosím důkladně přečtěte dané téma. A pro jistotu ještě jednou mezi napsáním a odesláním!

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agemoo
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Re: Domy ze slámy

#12 Příspěvek od agemoo » 06 říj 2010 20:22

ad simir: dosel jsem k zaveru, ze PRO SEBE, mysleno pro svoje zakoreneni a rozmnozovani bych stavel slama+drevenej ram. a to hlavne proto, ze prvni verze domu se tak da udelat, dalsi pristevek diky tomu muze jit do vysky, dalsi diky tomu do stran...a tam vsude uz to drevo je v podstate zbytecny, ale to jen diky dreveny nosny konstrukci uvnitr "nabalovanyho" domu. Bojim se, ze dum jednou postavenej ze slamy nepujde moc rozsirovat ve vertikalnim smeru....

jinak...sem pisu, pac jsme s wajrouem shodou okolnosti neco tematickeho upekli, tak si chci uzit plne tematicky prispevek:))


v popisu je to popsany:)

ted premejslim, jestli to sem placnout cely....ale asi jo:) stejne se to odkeca do "stranka c. 2 z x", pokud to nevytvori vlastni stranku:) tak enjoy

no jinak jde o to, ze mi myslenka spolecnych nekterych mistnosti neprijde vubec proti srsti....umim si predstavit domky vesnicky jako ciste obytny zalezitosti, klidne formou nejakych koridoru napojeny na uzitkovy mistnosti, jako jsou kuchyn, komunitni "obyvak", ucebna, knihovna, pestirna, relaxroom, sauna a "lazne", pradelna+susarna.....ja vim, jsem narocnej....ale ono to v souctu imho bude uspornejsi, nez kdyz kazdej dum bude mit velkou koupelnu, kuchyn, oybvak, atd...a pritom zadna z tech misnosti nebude mit vetsi prinos kdyz bude mensi...snad krome soukromy pracovny, jinak u vseho plati - cim vetsi, tim prijemnejsi na uzivani

mno...takze to dole je popis toho na videu, co vychazi ze stejny myslenky, kde diskretnim bydlenim byly zamysleny karavany. bohuzel jen anglicky, cesky neexistuje v citelny a pochopitelny verzi

JUHUUU!! jsem systemove ocenenej spamer! :DD
Vaše zpráva obsahuje 63020 znaků. Maximální povolený počet znaků je 60000.
tak ja to promazu

1. Campsite – Purpose, Ideas, Financial Management
The whole campsite idea is based on the need to have pickers as close to the workplace as possible, in order to optimize time utilization through quick reactions to weather changes. Additionally, the campsite would also mean a safer and quieter shelter for Chandler & Dunn Farm workers (and possibly not just them), providing them with a higher level of comfort. A development of healthy community at the core of farm work teams will:
- enhance work morale (and subsequently ensure a smoother flow of harvest),
- provide better safety (from both personal and property attacks),
- and minimize damage to camp equipment and protect the surrounding environment from all types of pollution (noise, light, waste).
In my opinion, all of this can be achieved by providing a pleasant homely accommodation. It takes but simple empathy to see that after three months of hard work, you feel better if you live in a nice, quiet and warm place, as opposed to inhabiting a ruined caravan which lets rain in, listening to Lithuanian folk songs from behind your window.  In addition to such non-material benefits, financial aspects must be mentioned as well. The camp is designed for 40–60 people (depending on density of caravans). Assuming the accommodation price is the same as in other camps (I suggest charging 1 or 2 pounds per day more, depending on caravan size – the camp will have a higher standard of living, it will be located closer to the workplace, it will be quieter and due the higher price it won’t directly compete with other camps), the camp would generate an income of £200–300 per day. For a 100-day (3–4 months) camp season and constant occupation by 50 people, this means an income of at least £20,000 per season and probably more. What’s more, the money can be manipulated immediately, because it can be simply deducted from wages, with wage expenses and accommodation income sharing a single document. I believe this would benefit both your accountant  and the workers (who will be able to spend all they get, without having to save for accommodation fees), as well as you, thanks to a higher amount of available money. First day fee (when there are no wages to deduct from) could be generously forgiven or paid separately. You will certainly be more able to calculate exact figures than me, since you have better entry data available, but in my humble opinion, the pure income would be £25,000 per season or more. Please keep this in mind when considering the cost of building the camp ;) Let’s forget setting the camp up for a while: repairs, energy, water and replacing broken equipment will, more or less, constitute the only running expenses. The cost of hygienic materials is virtually negligible (about £50 per month) and as a part of the effort to make the campsite „top-notch“, and also for environmental reasons discussed below, I suggest to include basic hygienic materials (toilet paper, soap, dishwashing liquid, etc.) in the accommodation fee. Another expense is salary of a caretaker, who will look after the camp before, during and after its seasonal operation.
Such „exclusive“ conditions will naturally create tendencies to eliminate improper behaviour and overall improvement of relations both among pickers and between pickers and the farm. Any violation of rules would be tackled swiftly and easily, because the troublemaker would lose work AND shelter concurrently, being virtually excommunicated. The risk of such a punishment has worked perfectly for many millennia ;) The campsite would include a communal building and about 35 caravans (7 large ones for 2–4 people, 11 medium-sized ones for 2 people and 17 small ones for 1–2 people). Of course, the number and size of caravans is subject to discussion and also depends on caravans available on the market. I would like to set the maximum of camp capacity to over 60 people, which would provide the luxury of extra spaciousness  if the camp is not fully occupied. I presume that the caravans will be selected, purchased and reconstructed gradually, over time, probably before building of the house, because of the late time. The building constitutes a second largest part of the initial investment and should be energetically passive, or almost so. Prices stated in this document are dubious and need to be verified in Britain, but they will work for rough estimations. Furthermore, the essential trick of the project is self-sufficiency, which is cost-unrelated (as laws of physics tend to be :) Unfortunately, it also introduces some uncertainty regarding costs (for example, it is unclear whether we will have to pay for straw and stones). Much will depend on availability of local resources. In the future (but also possibly alongside construction), a „biotope“ can be built next to the house – a lake with specific plants and organisms able to recycle washing water, which will constitute about two thirds of total water consumption. Purchasing hygienic materials for the camp will give us control over using strictly biologically degradable agents and having them decomposed right away. It goes without saying that such a lake will enhance the brand of the camp and help significantly reduce one of two remaining running expenses. The last expense, electricity, might be tackled in several years. I assume that as an „organic farm“, you have experience in and access to various ecology related grant projects. It will certainly do no harm to try to apply for a grant with this project, even if it should cover only a part of it :)

2. House
Get the whole concept on

2.1. Location
The house is intended to stand behind the storehouse, as discussed personally. The building will have a semi-circular ground plan and its straight wall will stand parallel to the storehouse. For a number of reasons stated below, I conclude that the most suitable distance between parallel walls is 2.5 m – 3 m. Thus, a space will be created for parking bikes, draining rainwater, storing tools etc. As you can see on the attached drawing and animation, properties and dimensions of the building are designed to match its selected location, taking into account likely arrangement of caravans (perhaps even additional buildings) and easy access to the inside of the house.
Another option, one that would significantly affect certain aspects of construction, is to place the building on the other side of the space intended for the campsite. That way, the southern wall would be exposed to the sun, with all the resulting advantages. This option is not discussed further here, due to the fact that the document is large enough already. I propose to discuss it personally, when you are familiar with the general concepts. Most procedures and techniques would be used in both cases.
2.2.1. Kitchen
Logically, the largest space in the middle of the building is reserved for the kitchen (approx. 40 m2). It should contain several cookers, e.g. 2 cookers with 4 hobs and 2 cookers with 2 hobs. There should be at least one of them the gas cooker. The remaining ones should utilize the cheapest source of energy available, which probably means electricity. Further equipment includes at least two double sinks, a dishwasher, freezers and fridges, one or two microwave ovens and two large pantries. The space under a working desk can be filled with shelves for tableware and accessories. Quantity and placement of the appliances could be adjusted later, when some conclusions are drawn from experience. However, for peaceful operation, it is probably better to buy multiple smaller units (rather than a few large ones), especially fridges. The appliances will not be fixed in any way and therefore may be moved around or expanded whenever such a need arises.

2.2.2. Washing Room / Drying Room

2.2.3. Toilets

2.2.4. Showers
Showers are adjacent to the kitchen and thus thermally shielded from outer walls by toilets and shower anteroom. Behold yet another advantage of the semi-circular floor plan . Shower room walls will be built in the same way as all others, except for their inner sides, which will have an asphalt layer over the first layer of clay plaster and an Ytong (aerated concrete) layer attached to it, covered with tiles, as well as the floor. The room is divided into two parts by translucent (but not transparent) inner door, which separates showers from the colder outer wall and forms a sort of anteroom. This space will be used for a sink and for putting away footwear. For now, I will assume that water is carried to the showers through a generic, unspecified pipe. See the water management section below for further discussion. Every shower has its own electric flow heater. Such a solution is not quite environmentally “pure”, but there is no need to overdo the green aspect. Flow heaters are practical because of low investment, quick installation and compact dimensions. Additionally, as far as I know, electricity price in England is almost negligible (especially considering expected profits), and individual flow heaters ensure that no more water is heated at any moment than necessary. The inner part of the shower room contains showers in five separate cells. There is a bench along the whole wall, directly in front of shower cell curtains, allowing people to oversee their belongings while taking a shower. Individual shower cells are covered by a curtain and share a drain, which is covered with a 15 cm high step and grates. I think it would be nice to have somewhere to put away soap, rest one’s leg, or possibly sit down. It is also good to have a single central drain. If an additional wall is built, 6 or more cells might be constructed, but I don’t consider it necessary. In my view, even 5 showers are enough and will be appreciated by pickers during afternoon peaks :)

2.3. Exterior & Construction
As for the aesthetic side of exterior design, I would let the builders do whatever they like. I believe it will be rewarding, at least in some sense of the word, considering the likely builder line-up . Personally, I would like to have inscriptions on the house, describing its advantages and specifications (to promote green approach ;) and some statues on top of that :) A gargoyle is a must :). The look of the house will be presented on a website, which is an integral part of the project.
The floor plan is a semi-circle with a radius of 8 meters, divided into five sections. The semi-circular shape is logically derived from the building’s position behind the long straight wall of the storehouse and the effort to have all rooms as easily accessible from the entire camp as possible, also thanks to shape we can use all the rainwater throught one pipe. For an overall concept of the house, see enclosed picture and animations on and read the following text, perhaps slightly chaotic :).
Before the construction commences, we should get in touch with http://www.amazonails.org.uk and other straw builders, who are usually willing to explain and demonstrate building procedures and techniques, provide consultations regarding building documentation, etc. We need to see who built what and copy the best elements :) Before the main construction, we also need to have materials and all pre-made parts ready.

2.3.1. Foundations
For foundations, I would like to apply one of procedures described at http://www.amazonails.org.uk/?contentId=73 . Alternatively, we can use simple beams on stones, as seen here: http://www.xixao.eu/images/rsgallery/or ... G_9896.JPG. It will depend on local soil conditions. In the North, houses built on large rocks from lakes are seen frequently 
There will be additional beams going through the foundations under every crossing of roof beams and walls. The roof will be roped to these beams. I would like to use hemp ropes, although steel might help nonbelievers feel safer .

2.3.1.1. Floor
It will be necessary (regardless of the option chosen for foundations) to construct a beam (150 mm – 200 mm x 50mm – 70 mm) grid on the foundations. This grid will support floor made of OSB boards. It is possible to construct trapdoors and gain access under the floor. Stuff that does not decay might be stored there. There might also be drains for water and wastewater pipes under the floor. If an artificial air circulation is used, there will also be fresh air vents. A floor for each room could be made beforehand and just seated on the foundations at time of construction. There will be beams on the foundations perimeter (“upstands” in the picture) and the space between them will be filled with an waterproof insulation layer. Bale walls will be placed onto this layer. See the picture in section 2.3.1.

2.3.2. Walls

2.3.2.1. Main Walls Characteristics
The width of the wall is derived from dimensions of available straw bales (using the middle dimension of a bale) and the width of clay layers. The dimensions of standard bales are approx. 350 mm x 450 mm x 1,000 mm, their weight is 16–30 kg. The usual width of the clay layer is 20 mm – 100 mm. “The more, the better” can be considered a general rule, because of insulation. On the drawings, wall thickness is set to 70 cm, positioned centrally, meaning that walls will decrease theoretical room dimensions by 35 cm each. This thickness was selected to provide margin, real walls are expected to be 60 cm thick. The Loadbearing method limits wall height to 3.5 m, my personal preference would be 2.45 m (7 bales). U-value of such walls amounts to 0.13 W/mK (straw only). In the enclosed PDF (whatisUvalue.pdf), the U-value is explained and compared for different construction materials – as you can see, straw has the lowest U-value of them all. K-value should amount to 0.09 W/mK (thermal conductivity; bricks 0.28–1.2 W/mK, wood 0.04–0,35 W/mK). R-value (1/U) of plastered straw bale walls (rendered with clay) amounts to 35–50 mK/W (equivalent of 15" fibreglass) Walls constructed in this fashion have additional advantages:
 no toxins or allergens, no threat to asthmatics
 perfect sound insulation (toilets, showers, laundry room) (straw is used for building noise barriers for motorways and airports)
 excellent fire resistance (A-class = resists fire for two hours, the level of protection required by codes for stairwells in public buildings)
 35 % weight compared to bricks and double ground area covered, meaning the pressure upon foundations is one sixth compared with brick wall
 a 500 mm thick wall has the same insulation properties as a 250 mm thick styrofoam wall.
 retail price of straw is many times lower than prices of other materials, not to mention self-produced straw.
 a “waste” material is used for construction, which might impress various institutions, not to mention Mother Nature 
 building regulations for different materials compared to straw: http://www.amazonails.org.uk/?contentId=42
 significant building cost reduction: wall construction cost is reduced to one twentienh, and this is further reduced by two thirds if self-produced straw is
used; additional savings result from the fact that no professional workforce is necessary.
 75 % reduction in heating costs (even less in our case, since the house will be heated by its operation and there will be only one active heater in the drying room).

2.3.2.2. Main Walls Construction
Walls must be built relatively fast in order to keep straw dry throughout the construction. To avoid material degradation, no moisture should be present inside the walls after rendering. Luckily, construction speed is one of the advantages of this building method.

2.3.2.2.1. Temporary Roof
Given the need to keep straw as dry as possible during the construction, as discussed above, a temporary roof should be built first of all. This roof might consist of several light beams with miralon (foam polythene) covering attached. (This material will be reused for permanent roof afterwards.) The perimeter of the building should be completely covered by the temporary roof. Temporary roof beams would be evenly distributed over gradually rising walls, remaining mobile, and the covering could be unrolled in seconds if needed. The covering, burdened by stones or other weights, should provide sufficient protection from summer rain showers. Of course, the best rain protection is to start buiding at a time with the highest probability of constantly sunny weather. Although densely packed straw bales do not exhibit the “mushroom effect” and can be quite well dried in the sun, it would be good to avoid humidity as much as possible during the construction, to ensure long-range durability of the building.

2.3.2.2.2. Wall Construction
The bales are isolated from foundations by a waterproof layer placed between the wooden beams (“upstands”) on the foundation. It would be ideal to isolate the outer wall in this fashion up to the height of the first bale, from both sides. The bales are arranged in a brick-like manner, except that the bales are not cemented together, but fixed with plain wooden sticks running through them instead. It’s easy to spot the potential for saving by using branches cut off apple trees. It is possible, although not necessary, to tie individual bale levels together. This would ensure more solid walls and reduced settlement, but also there is a risk of thermal bridge or pocket formation, causing moisture condensation in a particular spot within a bale, possibly resulting in rot. It is advisable to use a pure natural material, e.g. a hemp rope. My preference is to tie the roof to the foundations of outside walls, in intersections of rafters and walls. This
would enable continuous control over roof frame pressure on a specific wall section and even distribution of roof pressure on walls. In my opinion, this solution should be more than enough to make sure that the house won’t be blown apart by the Big Bad Wolf :) As mentioned earlier, roof will be placed on the bale walls, weighing them down. The roof beam system is intentionally more robust than necessary, to be absolutely sure that the roof will be able to bear itself, soil, snow and people, but also to be heavy enough by itself for proper weighing of the bale walls.
Walls will be most definitely rendered. Details will result from local soil characteristics and budget. The first layer might consist of clay, sand and straw (for better adhesion to straw bales). Second layer would follow, composed of clay and sand only. This layer would be manually smoothed and subsequently decorated by girls :). When dry, the wall is plastered, preferably with quicklime. Plaster might be also purchased as a prefabricated mixture. For a number of reasons (tradition, persistency, ecology, albedo), I consider the traditional lime rendering a good choice (see http://www.amazonails.org.uk/?contentId=72). The construction method of choice, known as the “Nebraska” or “Loadbearing Technique”, uses walls as the only supporting elements. This makes construction easy, creative and fast, even amusing. We can assume that all the supporting walls can be built within an “all hands on deck” weekend, perhaps even a single day. That is, of course, without plaster, which could be done in a week, assumming the weather is favourable. When walls are built, roof crown will be seated upon them and tied to the foundations using hemp (steel) ropes fixed in grooves in overhanging roof beams. The inner walls in the kitchen and shower room will be exposed to water and therefore must be tiled. A layer of tar will be applied to dried clay, followed by Ytong (aerated concrete). Finally, tiles will be glued onto Ytong with common tiling glue. I believe this could be done in one or two weeks, depending on the person doing it and his/her knowledge and experience. The advantage is that this work takes place inside the building and therefore, unlike the construction and plastering of outer walls, there is no urgent need to hurry, so there will be enough time to figure out the best way. During the construction of inner walls, the outer soil layer will get dry and the whole building will settle down. This means a decrease in wall height, usually amounting to 0.5–1 %. Light deformations (cracks) may occur in the dry soil layer during settlement. Thus, repairs will be necessary, their extent depending on weather. The settlement usually takes several weeks (first season) and will be accelerated by fastening ropes. When the settlement is over, the walls will be rendered with lime and a massive party may begin, because at that moment, the building is basically finished :)

2.3.2.3. Doors – Design and Construction
All door openings in load-bearing walls must be able to support the weight of bales and roof above them. The simplest solution is to make structural box frames into which actual doors are fixed. The design of the frames must take into account the fact that straw walls will settle under the weight of the roof. The extent of settling is impossible to predict, as it depends on density of bales and load applied to them. In practice, 75 mm (3”) is usually sufficient, and the frames are built to be 75 mm shorter than the total height of bale walls. Door frames would stand directly on the foundation, fixed in position with bolts or screws. I would like to have the doors from the floor up to the roof, or almost so. But that’s just because I’m so tall and hate to getting headshots from the door-beams:) Door will be placed in the round outer wall, so that all rooms are accessible from campsite area by a straight path. The house will have five doors and the doors will be the only openings in the walls. Door width will vary depending on purpose of respective rooms. Kitchen door will be double, wider than 150 cm. Laundry room and showers will have traditional 90 cm doors. Toilet doors will be even narrower or none at all (with narrow openings instead).

2.3.2.4. Infrastructure

2.3.2.4.1. Design
Distribution of water, electricity and waste must be reckoned with when building the house. I suggest using plastic pipes, usually used for wastewater, as containers for all infrastructure ducts, embedded into walls and floors. They can be inserted between bales and left to protrude through clay. Subsequently, the protruding part would be cut away so that the interior of the pipe is accessible (and covered with a grate later). Pipes with 12+ cm diameter will provide enough space for both water pipes and electric cables. Should this be a problem (legal or safety-related), only electricity could be led through walls, and water and wastewater pipes would be laid in a “drain” inside the floor. In this regard, I am not quite sure what is the customary solution and legal possibilities in England. However, English legislation is generally more favourable towards this kind of buildings than Czech legislation, which employs very strict rules for virtually everything, and still there are straw houses in the Czech Republic :). In the worst (and cheapest) case, the infrastructure would be done in the same way as in other camps – that is, very simply :) The solution described above would be very handy for repairs or changes, because there would be no need to cut and repair walls.

2.3.2.4.2. Construction
The method of building infrastructure into walls is described above. Prior to wall construction, a decision must be made about cable and pipe parameters, especially their diameters, and an appropriate way of fixing them in the container pipe must be chosen. We can assume usage of fixed partitions inside container pipes, which will divide the space within and keep the cables and pipes apart from one another. Container pipes, prepared in this fashion in advance, will be built into bales during wall construction. Respective bales will be slightly cut and the container pipe will be roped to the sticks that interconnect bales. Should the ducts be led through the floor, it would be appropriate to make “trenches” in the floor out of a waterproof and incombustible material, copying the inner perimeter of the rooms. This would simplify rendering, higher water pressure would be necessary and costs would rise a bit due to longer ducts (by the difference between ground and devices). The simple option doesn’t need much description – an electric cable, attached to a roof beam, simply leads to a lightbulb, and a uncovered descending wastewater pipe takes waste away from sinks :).

2.3.2.5. Ventilation

2.3.2.5.1. Design
To ensure air exhaust, every room will be equipped with a fan and an exhaust stack. There might be two in the kitchen. The kitchen fans will turn on simultaneously with the cooker, the other fans will be connected to light switches. In addition, every fan will have a switch of its own, so that it is possible to turn it on/off independently. Fresh air will be supplied through doors (which won’t be completely airtight) and windows (which will have openings for draining condensed water). This “system”, combined with natural properties of straw walls, should suffice to maintain comfortable atmosphere in all parts of the house and to secure air circulation and purity.

2.3.2.5.2. Construction
An exhaust stack will consist of a simple sheet metal pipe with an inbuilt fan, protruding through the roof and with a small roof of its own. In the kitchen, they will be connected to hood exhausts from individual cookers with AluFlex pipes.
Another option is to exhaust air from the building centrally, with a single pipe placed under the roof and leading through all the rooms. At the end of the pipe, the
exhausted air would be used to warm up fresh air, coming in through a parallel pipe, through a heat exchanger. An electric heater might be added to the heat exchanger to enable heating on colder days, but considering strong insulation and the fact that the building will be mainly used in summer, I don’t see that as necessary.

2.3.2.6. Heating

2.3.2.6.1. Design
The drying room will be equipped with a portable electric heater and a fan. The kitchen is supposed to heat itself through its common operation. An electric heater may be added to the shower room for more comfort. However, this is not necessary, because as with the other rooms, we can assume that common operation will heat the house enough, thanks to the insulation properties of the walls. It is a known fact that every person is an equivalent of a 100-watt heater, and on top of that, there will be flow heaters to help. For toilets, no heaters are planned, considering their expected frequency of use, location and purpose. Of course, an electric heater can be placed in any room in case of need, and heat the room up in a while again-thanks to the insulation. Considering the availability and beauty of pebbles in your country, I came upon the idea of using them as heat accumulators in rooms that are most subjected to cold. Apart from this practical benefit, they might also be quite pleasing for the eye. When the daily bustle in the house is over, they could help heating toilets for a few more hours, which is guaranteed to please everybody :).

2.3.3. Roof

2.3.3.1. Main Roof

2.3.3.1.1. Design
For better comprehension, pictures (perhaps even videos) are enclosed. The roof shape is quite special, not too easy to visualize. The main roof will consist of three parts – above the kitchen, the right wing adn the left wing. On the round outer wall, it will be seated on roof crown, one meter above it. Windows are discussed in a separate section. The middle part of the roof, sheltering kitchen, will descend towards the straight wall, angled at -12.5 % (-1 m/8 m). It will contain three windows (1x 2 m x 1 m, 2x 1 m x 1.5 m). Its end will be the lowest edge of the entire roof. Each side part is bent one meter above the crown and descends towards its sole corner. The side parts are connected to the middle part of the roof in all their length. These edges of the side parts descend parallelly with the middle part, the other edges will be steeper (-18 %). The left part has one window (1.5 m x 1 m) for toilets, with the longer side parallel to the ground, orthogonal to the straight outer wall, and two identically oriented windows (1.5 m x 1 m) for the shower room, with shorter sides parallel to the ground. The right part has two windows (1.5 m x 1 m), one oriented orthogonally to the straight wall, the other parallel with it. There will be a wide gutter under the central part, gathering rainwater from the entire roof. Subsequently, the water will be carried through a pipe where necessary – either into sewer, or the recycling lake. The partially flat shape of the roof was chosen primarily for its low cost, easy construction and the posssibility of putting soil with plants on top of it, which will give the building a genuine green look. This technology is well known and widely used in Norway, in the north of Britain and also elsewhere. Soil, solidified by plant roots, also posseses excellent heat insulation properties (it prevents heat from getting in through the roof in summer, and from getting out in winter). The green roof consists of the following layers: extensive vegetation (moss and low grass), soil, filter and drainage layer (geotextile), root barrier, and finally, separating, sliding and water insulation layer (Mirelon – foam polythene, a common element of roof construction).
The space between storehouse and roof should be roofed in a fashion demonstrated in the picture (essentialy, it only means prolonging the main roof). The reason for this isn’t just possible use of space between houses for storage (bikes, barbecue), but also the necessity to protect it from excessive humidity and accumulation of snow falling from the storehouse roof in winter.

2.3.3.1.2. Construction
A crown, seated on walls, is the foundation of the roof. The crown is constructed from beams (approx. 5 cm x 5 cm), bolted into a “ladder”, reinforced diagonally and boarded up with OSB on both sides. The crown will be constructed in advance, in parts corresponding to wall dimensions. Every part will already have vertical columns (15 cm x 15 cm) attached that will support the actual roof. Parts corresponding to inner kitchen walls must have two rows of columns. All columns must be precisely measured and positioned, so that the roof can be constructed without delays. Next up, rafters (20 cm x 10 cm) will be laid and fixed on the columns. The rafters must be angled in accordance with desired roof angle. In the kitchen, there will be four large horizontal beams (22 cm x 15 cm x 850cm) for supporting windows. Windows are placed on the beams and secured in position. The actual roofing will be accomplished by bolting OSB boards on the rafters (or extra boards). This will ensure even distribution of weight to all walls and sufficient and uniform bearing capacity of the roof for the intended soil layer, water and snow. Additionally, a barrier will be made out of boards along the round edge of the roof. The barrier will prevent soil and water from falling over on rainblockers and the insulation foil will be attached to it. Once the wooden construction is done, an insulation layer of miralon (foam polythene) is attached. Actually, there will be two layers, a stronger one on the OSB, and one more glued to the first layer. This is because of different thermal expansivity of materials. After that, drains and barriers (to prevent soil from falling down or being flushed down by water) are put into place. Finally, all is covered with geotextile. Before we put soil on the roof, we need to tie ropes and strings to the edge of the roof, which should help to keep soil in place during formation of root system. At first, I would only put 3–6 cm of soil on the roof, possibly adding up to 10 cm later. The reason for this is soil settlement. If we choose to plant moss, no addition of soil will be necessary.
The roof frame must be constructed before the walls, so that it can be put into place as soon as the walls are finished to protect them from moisture. Polythene from the temporary roof, now available, can be used to protect unrendered walls from moisture. Naturally, soil and grass can be replaced with “traditional” (or actually modern) technologies, I’m just afraid they’ll be more expensive, less effective and not so pretty and attractive:)

2.3.3.2. Roof Windows

2.3.3.2.1. Design
To get enough light in all rooms during the day, I opted for roof windows. They are probably the easiest (and therefore cheapest) way to get light in. And as a bonus, they can unload the roof. Given the strong thermal insulation of the house, their weak thermal resistance can be ignored, especially since the house will operate in warm season. Every room will have a number of windows, placed between rafters, that will provide sufficient light for the room without weakening bearing capacity of the roof. Their exact placement is documented on attached drawings and in the main roof description.

2.3.3.2.2. Construction
Roof windows will fill inner roof segments (between rafters). They will consist of sheet metal frames bolted to rafters in the same way as the OSB boards. Actual windows will rest on rubber coated edges of the frames. They will consist of wire glass with an overhang of approx. 20 cm over the frame in all directions. The windows will have hinges, so that they can be opened and used for ventilation in the main season. Double hinges would provide the possibility to open windows to either side, or unhinge them completely. At the lowest one edge of each window, the glass wil not touch the frame to enable draining water that will condense because of different inside and outside temperatures.

2.3.3.3. Rainblockers

2.3.3.3.1. Design
By “rainblockers”, I mean a roof overhang protecting walls from too much direct rain. This is especially necessary in England. As I have already told you, moisture is the principal enemy of straw houses, and therefore, it is necessary to exert a bit more effort to prevent it than with common buildings.
Although the plaster provides enough protection and straw houses are frequently built just like any other, the better the moisture protection, the more it is likely that the house will still serve its purpose after a hundred or more years. For this reason, the entire house will be surrounded by a shelter with an overhang of approx 1.5 m – 2 m, with supporting columns positioned as necessary. This overhang will also provide cover from mud in front of the doors as well as shelter outdoor seating areas and provide comfort for meals or evening barbecues. The sheltered areas can also provide space for drying clothes, should the drying room space be insufficient.

2.3.3.3.2. Construction
Rainblockers will be constructed as small roofs, each part with its own supporting column. They will be connected to the main roof (the connection being their highest part) and descend to 2.2 m above ground. They will be made of small boards, covered with either leftover roof insulation or better, a light roof covering, purchased specifically for this purpose. Columns will be firmly embedded in the ground. This part of the roof should also be completed before wall building commences, so that it can be immediately atached to the roof once it’s finished, thus again protecting straw from moisture.

2.3.4. Wastewater
The exact fate of wastewater depends on the proximity of sewerage. Considering there is a farm, storehouse and tractor garage nearby, this shouldn’t be a problem. If it is, building a cesspit should be considered. Its location would result from local conditions.

2.3.5. Seating Areas
When the main construction is done, simple sheltered seating areas will be constructed. My vision is that of traditional units consisting of a table connected with two benches, its width corresponding to the width of rainblockers and length resulting from circumstances. This is the final and least important part of the entire building project.

2.4. Material

2.4.1. Straw

2.4.1.1. What Is Straw Used for? How Much Do We Need?
Straw will be the primary building material for walls. Assuming bale dimensions of 350 mm x 450 mm x 1,000 mm and wall area of approx. 70 m x 2.45 m (70 = 2x3.14x8/2 + 16 + 2x8 + 2x7), a maximum of 490 bales will be needed, 500 including backup, to be on the safe side. It is necessary to provide a dry place for their full drying and storage before the construction. An area of 10 m x 4 m should be enough. It is worth mentioning that while one bale has the same area as more than 20 bricks, a brick wall would be four times narrower, would have the same weight and much worse insulation properties compared to straw wall.

2.4.1.2. What Kind of Straw?
As I have already told you personally, this project is an application of the StrawBale Constructing System. This system, as documented at websites linked hereinbefore, uses straw from common cereals as the main building material in the form of bales, usually made at higher pressures than those used in agriculture. A standard building bale has dimensions of 350 mm x 450 mm x 1,000 mm and weighs 16–30 kg.

2.4.1.3. Where Will the Straw Come from?
I expect that as a farmer, you could produce the bales yourself. The question is whether your baler can be set to higher straw density. If it is impossible to use your own bales for any reason, I assume it is no problem getting them somewhere in the neighbourhood. That would minimize transport costs and carbon footprint of the material.

2.4.1.4. How Much Will It Cost?
I ignore the cost of your own self-produced bales, though I know that they don’t come for free. If bales are to be bought from local farmers, I assume a price of £1 per bale (based on two-year-old information). In case neither of this is possible, bales including transport can be ordered from a wide network of suppliers with prices about £1.5 per bale plus transport cost.

2.4.2. Soil

2.4.2.1. What Is Soil Used For?
Clay will be used for plastering walls to enhance their resistance against water, fire, noise and cold. Plastering also improves stability (straw houses can withstand 8.7 Richter scale earthquakes – cool video at http://www.osbbc.ca/2009/04/06/successf ... bale-house ;) Another type of soil, common arable soil, will be used on the roof as a growing medium for roof plants.

2.4.2.2. What Kind of Soil?
It would be perfect to have clay and fine sand available separately and mix them in appropriate ratio with straw for the first layer, without straw for the second one. There might be a third layer of pure clay, depending on the intended look of the house. Common soil, devoid of impurities and properly mixed with sand, can be used too. However, working with it is harder and more repairs are necessary. Commercial plaster mixture is an option, too. Local soil will be used for the roof. If the quality of the soil is unacceptable, it will be replaced or enriched with commercial soil substrate.

2.4.2.3. Where Will Soil Come from?
Any place with suitable soil and the possibility to dig. Alternatively, local building material dealers or amazonails.co.uk.

2.4.2.4. How Much Will It Cost?
That largely depends on the previous question. My best estimate is that the expenses should amount to anything between £0 and £800. Unfortunately, my knowledge of the location isn’t sufficient to provide a better estimation. :/

2.4.3. Stones

2.4.3.1. What Are Stones Used for? How Many?
Large stones will be needed for outer wall foundations. Smaller stones will be used to fill space within the wall foundations, giving them self-drying ability. Aditionally, we will need pebbles from the sea to embed into walls for decorative and thermal accumulation purposes. We will need a large quantity of stones of both types. As for the pebbles, several dozens will be enough.

2.4.3.2. What Kind of Stones?
For the wall foundations, we will need stones of a reasonable size that allows building at least two stone layers above ground level. These layers will be fixed with concrete to provide stable support. For the self-drying foundations, smaller, sharp-edged stones will be needed, devoid of dust and impurities, densely packed into the space among large stones. Construction rubble or broken pieces of tile, devoid of dust and mixed with ground sea pebbles, would be perfect for this. For decoration and heat accumulation, any good-looking stones can be used. Sea pebbles look best and therefore are the most suitable.

2.4.3.3. Where Will the Stones Come from?
It would be ideal to find a demolished building nearby and be able to extract rubble and large stones from the site. If not, searching in orchards and fields or a trip to the sea will be necessary. I think that several walks will provide a good overview as for where the stones are, and after that, one or two trips with a car and a trailer should get us enough stones.

2.4.3.4. How Much Will They Cost?
Presumably, we will be able to get the stones for free; if not, the expenses should be very low. If it turned out that the stones will have to be bought, it could mean a substantial increase of building cost. But more likely, people will be glad to get rid of stones in their fields and orchards.

2.4.4. Wood

2.4.4.1. What Is Wood Used for?
Wood will be the second most important building material. It will be used primarily for roof beams, roof support and roof crown. Wood will be also used for constructing the rainblocker rooflet encircling the building, floor, floor supporting grid, bale interconnections, kitchen workdesk, tables, cabinets, outdoor seating and doors.

2.4.4.2. What Sort of Wood? How much?
5 cm x 10 cm beams will be used for the floor supporting grid, for “upstands” and roof beams that will not support windows. Total length of these beams will be approximately 180 m, which corresponds to 0,9 m3 of wood. Depending on wood price, the roof crown will be made of either 10 cm x 5 cm or 5 cm x 5 cm beams. Constructing the crown with diagonal reinforcements requires 300 m of these beams, corresponding to approx. 0.75 – 1.5 m3 of wood, and 60 m2 of OSB boards. Optionally, the narrower beams can be used for orthogonal crown elements, and the wider beams for diagonal reinforcements. Furthermore, approx. 60 m of 20 cm x 20 cm supporting columns (between roof crown and actual roof) will be needed. This corresponds to approx. 2.4 m3 of wood. Four 9m x 20 cm x 20 cm (or 22 cm x 15 cm) beams are needed to support windows in the kitchen. More beams are necessary for supporting the OSB boards; for the entire house, we will need 120 m of them, which means 1,8 m3 of wood in form of 15 cm x 20 cm beams. Including door frames, this is 2 m3 altogether. Rainblockers will be made of 60 m of 5 cm x 5 cm columns and 50 m2 of planks. Together, this constitutes 0.3 m3 of wood. Finally, there is about 270 m2 of OSB boards, used for both floor and roof, possibly also for cabinets and/or parts of kitchen workdesk. Multiplying the total amount of materials by a ratio of 1.1 (for waste, tables, kitchen desk, cabinets, outdoor seating, shelves, etc. etc. ), the resulting value is 7.7 m3 of wood and 300 m2 of OSB.

2.4.4.3. Where Will the Wood/OSB Come from?
Construction material store, sawmill/carpentry, friends – depending on available possibilities.

2.4.4.4. What Will It Cost?
Again, this is only an estimate, because all the dimensions are variable and prices are based on Czech standards. However, since the values are based on the most expensive option (beams of 9 m x 18 cm x 22 cm), a margin of 10 % is included and all
the partial values are a bit exaggerated, we can assume that the real price will not exceed the estimate. In the Czech Republic, 1 m3 of beams costs £180 – £250 and OSB cost from £3 per board (3.125 m2 x 8 mm) to £10 per board (25 mm). In total, this means at most £2,000 for the beams and £300 – £1,000 for the OSB. Therefore, the total price of all wood shouldn’t exceed £3,000 (all dimensions and prices are rounded up). Good news is that whatever the real price is (and most likely, it will not exceed the estimate), it will constitute the largest part of construction costs, and the investment will return within 10 days of camp operation 

2.4.5. Other Materials

2.4.5.1. What Kind, What for, How Much
Miralon for the roof. Miralon (foam polythene) comes in bands 1 m wide and 2 mm thick; 300 m is required for the roof. It will also find a temporary use for covering the walls during construction, and can also be put under the lowest strawbales instead of old plastic bags. In Czech prices, the required amount costs no more than £300. Geotextiles for the roof, for filtration and drainage. The amount needed is one half of that of miralon (only one layer will be applied). The price varies dramatically, but £150 will certainly buy enough high-quality geotextile. Ropes for binding the roof crown to the foundations. Ideally 70 m of high-quality hemp rope. A 20 mm thick hemp rope with strength of 21.5 kN is sold at about £1.5 per meter. This means total expenses of about £100. Sheet metal for windows. 50 cm wide sheet metal will be used for windows. The total amount needed is 21 m2. In the Czech Republic, sheet metal is sold for £7/m2 (0.8 mm thick) or £5/m2 (0.55 mm thick). Using the higher price for estimation, total expenses should be about £150. Glass for windows. There will be two windows 2 m x 1 m large, and six windows 1.5 m x 1 m large. Together, this means 13 m2 of glass, ideally reinforced with wire to ensure safety and sufficient bearing capacity for snow. At Czech prices, one square meter of glass costs £20 and the total cost of glass is £260. Ytong for insulating straw wall from bathroom moisture. A 15 cm thick material costs no more than £15 per square meter. In total, 35 m2 is needed, meaning an expense of about £300. Asphalt for the same purpose. The necessary amount is the same as above, the price per square meter varies between £1 and £5, meaning a total expense of £50 – £250.
Tiles for the same purpose. Tile prices are very variable, but for £10/m2, a fine quality surface can be obtained, including adhesive. In total, this means an expense of approx. £350. PVC pipes for containing ducts. The price for a meter of length shouldn’t exceed £1.5, and the total cost shouldn’t exceed £100.

2.4.5.2. How Much Will It Cost?
The total price of “other materials” shouldn’t exceed £2,000, including materials not mentioned specifically, like bolts, grids, sockets, cables, and so on.

2.5. Human Workforce
Another advantage of straw building is that virtually no experts are necessary. Foundations, walls, roof, floors, plaster, windows and electric wiring – all of this can be done by anyone with a little help from his/her friends. Of course, a plumber will be needed for water and wastewater piping, and local building authority for authorization, but almost everything else can be done by unqualified workforce that is abundant on your farm. Also, I plan to run a workshop during the construction. As a part of this workshop, exact procedures and distribution of work will be outlined, individual techniques explained and their influence on the finished building discussed. During this week-long workshop that a few of my Czech friends would like to attend, walls will be built on foundations prepared beforehand, roof will be seated upon them and covered with insulation layers, perhaps even soil, and walls will be plastered. This covers virtually all work that requires more than two people. Judging by my experience with your pickers, I think there shouldn’t be a problem in finding people willing to help with lifting a part of roof, plastering walls with clay or making a bench after their daily work. After all, the know-how of building a pretty house with minimal cost and carbon footprint might come in handy for anyone. Since good weather and a large group of crazy enthusiasts are required, we may safely assume that the construction will be fun, too. As for all the other work, be it planning, preparations, construction of pre-made parts or managing builders, I would like to do it myself. I’m not proposing this without forethought: considering how much I’ve read and written on the subject, and the fact that you will no doubt be busy with your own work, it seems reasonable enough to me. Moreover, I know for sure that I would enjoy this work like I have enjoyed no other work for ages, since the results will be seen immediately and last for a long time. Also, my English could use some improving. Well... enough self-promotion :D.

2.6. Cost
Regarding costs, it is important to keep in mind that all the estimates are based on Czech prices, and all costs throughout the entire document are intentionally slightly exaggerated, as well as material quantities, partial expenses and calculation results. Therefore, we may assume that the real costs will not exceed the estimates stated here. On the other hand, additional expenses may arise that are not considered here; the exaggeration of estimates should create a margin to cover them. I don’t want to spend any more time adjusting the estimates to English prices, because of the fact that even if the total expenses were twice or thrice as high as the estimate, the investment would still return after two, three years at most, which is more than acceptable, given the profits the camp will generate afterwards (try to find another investition with minimal 33% and more probably 70% annual revenue ). Below is a brief overview of expenses (the most expensive options are given):
Material		Most Expensive Option	Cheapest Option
OSB			£1,000			£300
Wood (beams)		£2,000
Straw			£750			0
Soil			£800			0
Miralon			£120
Geotextile		£150
Ropes			£100
Sheet Metal		£150
Glass			£260
PVC			£100
YTONG			£350
Tiles incl. Adhesive	£350
Asphalt			£250
Toilets			£200			£100
Sinks			£150
Showers			£100			£20
Flow Heaters		£500
Gas Cooker w/ Oven	£300			£100
Electric Cookers	£1,000			£300
Heater for Drying Room	£200
TOTAL			£8,830			£5,500
Rounded up to stay on the safe side, the overall construction cost is £9,000. I believe that the expenses should under no circumstances exceed £10,000. With standard accommodation price and full occupation, this investment will return in 40 days of camp operation.

2.7. Time Schedule
The timetable includes a margin for bad weather. If the weather is fine and/or there is a possibility to perform pre-construction in a roofed building with enough space, the construction will take one third to one half of the time given. This pertains to the manual work itself, planning stage is not included because it´s mostly done. All work should fit into one summer. If all work goes well, the weather is fine, all materials are ready and all authorizations secured, it is possible to carry out the preparations in 6–8 weeks, build the house in 1-2 weeks and finish the project completely in another two months; these finishing touches can be done in any weather. The total time is 4 months. A rough timetable is shown on the enclosed Gantt chart (TimeSchedule.jpg). Several notes regarging the time plan:
- All work regarding waste largely depends on chosen option, number of workers and possible use of machines.
- Foundations can be made by a single person and the time estimate counts with a single worker. If pickers could help for a day (say, a voluntary working Sunday), the ditches could be done in 1–3 days, including wooden frames for supporting large stones when casting concrete. The work regarding large stones includes gathering material and drying of concrete.
- Additional workers are inevitably needed for building walls. Wall construction and rendering stage requires 5–10 workers. Doors and ducts can be pre-made by a single person. Also, rendering walls from the inside (including special waterproof surfaces) can and probably must be done by one worker.
- Roof and rainblockers can be constructed by a single person beforehand; they will be put in place during main construction by a team.
Given how much time I’ve spent working on this document, the deadlines stated in the chart will probably not be met (although it is not quite impossible – it could be done with an additional helper). Problems are expected in legal aspects of the camp, which can’t be expected to be solved overnight; therefore, I suggest to adjust the time schedule and start doping preparations and obtaining authorizations simultaneously, so that when the authorization is issued, foundations can be done in a week or two and run the workshop immediately after that. This way, it should be still possible to build the house this year.
Should it prove impossible to build the house this summer, I suggest to commence preparations for next year’s construction and simultaneously, to begin purchasing and reconstructing caravans. Considering the number of caravans and their likely state (being bought second-hand), their selection and reconstruction will likely be the most time-consuming part of the project, and as such, it can be carried out in autumn and winter, when no other work is possible.

2.8. Legal aspects
Since there are different laws in the Czech Rep. and UK, legal requirements will have to be explored, but given that many buildings of this type (including schools and public offices) already stand in UK and Ireland, I expect there will be no major problems. Still, exact requirements will have to be discovered in England, ideally from people who have already built such houses there. Btw with the changes to rules governing Building Regulation in the UK, it is possible to use an independent Approved Inspector rather than your own Local Authority to ensure compliance with the Building Regulations, so if you meet with resistance you can appoint an inspector who is already familiar with the method.

3. Caravans
As mentioned above, it will be best to purchase multiple variants of caravans. I’d suggest buying 17 single-person caravans, 13 two- or three-person ones and 7 large caravans for groups of four pickers. The exact number and type distribution will probably emerge from market offer. Caravans should be reconstructed immediately after purchase, not necessarily to roadworthy condition, but certainly towards comfortable inhabitability. This includes no water leaking in, no wind blowing in, usable equipment, cleanliness and effective use of interior space. It is necessary to remove toilets, optimize furniture/equipment layout for appropriate number of inhabitants (for example, there shouldn’t be two tiny beds in a single-person caravan, but, say, a large bed and a cabinet instead), etc. Newish look of repaired caravans will subconsciously encourage inhabitants to keep them in decent condition (while old ruined furniture would tempt them to handle it carelessly). The caravans will be arranged in front of the communal building, forming sort of small plazas. The arrangement is based on experience from existing camps: such spaces, usually among three caravans and camproad, promote social life and therefore enhance development of picker community. The caravans represent the largest part of camp costs. Caravans without road licence (cheaper, but higher transport cost) cost about €350 (small caravans), up to €500 for large ones (source: mobile.de). The largest caravans without road licence and smaller caravans with one cost up to €1,000. It is difficult to estimate the total price of caravans due to their number and variability, but let’s suppose it will be 37 x £500 (margin included), plus 37 x £100 for reconstruction. Overall caravan expenses will be about £22,000. You, being a local, probably have means for more exact price estimation.

4. Water
In this section, I would like to discuss water management in the camp. The roof is designed to carry all rainwater to a single spot. Thanks to that, a substantial amount of washing water could be collected. Given that water for showers and washing clothes will constitute 60–80 % of total water consumption at the campsite, the idea of recycling used water and rainwater is worth considering. My idea is to dig a shallow isolated lake next to the house, with a natural filtering system, forming an enclosed biotope. The lake would degrade soap and washing liquids from showers and washing machines. Ensuring that biologically degradable agents are used is why we will buy these agents for the camp. Of course, one of the showers can be supplied with drinking water to cater those who feel uncomfortable with this solution. Another option is to install taps for choosing water source for a particular heater/shower. It would cost more, but also prevent any complaints about water purity. It is up to you to decide if it’s worth it :) Feasibility and extent of construction of water management system non-stop serving fifty people remains an issue for personal discussion and further examination. Success would mean a reward of cutting running costs and further independence on centralized sources – hell knows when this might come in handy :) Not to mention attractivity for potential ecological grant donors. However, at first, water will of course be carried away the same way it is now and only carried IN from the lake of the filtered rainwater. :)

Přeformátoval wajrou (30.10.2010): Zvýraznil jsem a odsadil nadpisy aby byl text na první pohled přehlednější, zformátoval tabulku s materiály... k zásahu do samotného textu nedošlo.

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Re: Domy ze slámy

#13 Příspěvek od newerMore » 30 říj 2010 15:10

Hodil by se render s pohledem shora... možná víc než to video s kupou chyb :)

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Re: Domy ze slámy

#14 Příspěvek od newerMore » 24 lis 2013 03:42

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"Logic will get you from A to Z; imagination will get you everywhere." ;-) (Logika tě dovede od A do Z; představivost tě dostane všude.) ~ Albert Einstein

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